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Remodeling 101: A Solar Panel Primer, Eclipse Edition


Remodeling 101: A Solar Panel Primer, Eclipse Edition

April 8, 2024

In honor of today’s eclipse, we’re revisiting all kinds of solar power…

If you’re looking to reduce your utility bills and your carbon footprint, solar power could be the way to go. The big question: Will the savings in your energy bills eventually outweigh the investment of installing solar panels? Read on to find out.

charles de lisle&#8\2\17;s off grid sonoma retreat is powered by solar; see 17
Above: Charles de Lisle’s off-grid Sonoma retreat is powered by solar; see Off the Grid: A Stylish, Low-Impact Retreat in Sonoma by Charles de Lisle. Photograph by Eric Petschek.

What are solar panels? How do they work?

Solar panels are designed to convert energy from the sun into electricity via the use of photovoltaic technology: When the sun’s rays hit the panels, semiconductors turn the energy into electrons of direct current (DC) electricity.

The DC power is then fed into an inverter, which transforms the direct current power into alternating current (AC), enabling it to become a source of electrical power that feeds into the electrical panel of your house.

a berkshires getaway is one with nature, expansive solar panels included. see&# 18
Above: A Berkshires getaway is one with nature, expansive solar panels included. See Architect Visit: Aging in Place in the Berkshires, Modern Barn Edition.

What happens after the power feeds into the electrical panel?

A bi-directional meter measures the power your solar system produces. Excess energy flows into the grid, where it is managed on a comprehensive scale. Meanwhile your utilities meter moves backward as your energy consumption reverses, resulting in a credit on your utilities bill.

solar panels on a new farmhouse in connecticut by remodelista architect and des 19
Above: Solar panels on a new farmhouse in Connecticut by Remodelista Architect and Designer Directory member Rafe Churchill. For more, see The Architect Is In: The New Connecticut Farm, Sustainable Edition.

Why would you want to install solar panels?

The most compelling reason is the positive impact solar power has on the environment. The majority of our electricity is generated by oil and coal—which, in turn, causes air pollution and adds to the greenhouse gas buildup in our environment. And as the global supply of fossil fuels wanes, the cost of energy derived from these sources mounts. Sunshine, meanwhile, is a plentiful—and free—resource; the expense lies in the initial investment cost of installing panels.

inside a light flooded home powered by solar panels; see more of the project in 20
Above: Inside a light-flooded home powered by solar panels; see more of the project in Loft Living: An Energy-Efficient Oasis in Portland, Oregon. For another home run on solar, see A Soulful, Monastic House in New Zealand, Japanese-Shaker Style Included.

How much sunshine is needed for solar panels?

As one might suspect, a photovoltaic system creates the most energy in a sunny setting. Even so, living in Southern California is not a prerequisite (solar panels make use of all daylight hours, and in some climes they’re able to convert more energy than in others). The way to determine if you have enough sunshine is by comparing your annual electricity use to the annual amount of sun you have in your area (the solar irradiance in your area can be calculated here). If your electrical energy needs are high and you don’t live in a sunny climate, there may be times that a solar energy system comes up short. When that’s the case, power is simply pulled from the utilities grid through your meter.

an eco friendly garden shed in vermont, solar panels included. for more, see&#x 21
Above: An eco-friendly garden shed in Vermont, solar panels included. For more, see Garden Designer Visit: A Burst of Color in the Green Mountains on Gardenista. Photograph by Susan Teare courtesy of JMMDS.

How much does a solar energy system cost?

The cost of a photovoltaic system is an up-front investment; the exact amount depends on how much electricity you use and what percentage of that you would like your solar energy system to supply. The more electricity you require, the larger the system required (see chart below for a ballpark figure).

Government-funded solar incentive programs vary from country to country and even from state to state. Some solar-incentive programs pay you back over time based on the energy you generate. Other solar incentives are one-time payments of rebates or credits. To find out the incentives in your area, consult Wholesale Solar’s Solar Incentives by State.

The average cost of installing a solar system varies across the US, and some of the differential is due to these local, regional, and state incentives. But estimates show that solar energy systems create monthly savings across the board: According to EnergySage.com, the average savings from use of a solar system over 20 years can range from $7,000 to over $30,000 (but varies, depending on locale). For estimates based on your specific area, try Google’s Project Sunroof feature, which allows you to plug in your home address for personalized figures.

the photovoltaic panels in this building have been integrated into the standing 22
Above: The photovoltaic panels in this building have been integrated into the standing-seam metal roof. Photograph via Fabral.

How much can I expect to save on utility bills?

The answer depends on what you currently pay for electricity and how much credit your utility company will give you for the amount of power you don’t use. This estimate can be determined by approximating how much power your solar system will provide compared to your current usage.

Are solar panels ever good-looking?

Don’t like the bulky look of solar panels? The next generation of solar products, Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), show great promise: photovoltaic cells are being incorporated into shingles, windows, siding, and other building materials, enabling structures in the future to have seamless solar solutions.

tesla&#8\2\17;s latest solar roof is disguised as charming slate tiles; see 23
Above: Tesla’s latest solar roof is disguised as charming slate tiles; see Tesla Solar Roof: Is It Worth It? on Gardenista.

Solar Panels Recap:


  • Good for the environment
  • Reduced utility costs
  • Lessens our dependence on fossil fuels


  • Relatively high initial cost
  • The amount of savings is not straightforward
  • Not traditionally aesthetically pleasing

Had firsthand experience with solar paneling? In the Comments section, fill us in on your finds.

on telegraph hill, in san francisco, a flat roofed building by feldma 24
Above: On Telegraph Hill, in San Francisco, a flat-roofed building by Feldman Architecture has solar panels mounted at an angle to catch the sun’s light. The optimum angle to mount a solar panel varies throughout the year depending on the seasons and geographical location. In an ideal world, solar panels would track the location of the sun minute by minute to optimize their harnessing capacity, but this is expensive and energy consuming. Instead, the panels remain stationery at an angle that is calculated to achieve optimum overall performance within the constraints.

For more remodeling advice, browse our Remodeling 101 series. And for more on solar paneling and eco-friendly upgrades, see:

N.B. This post is an update; the original story ran on July 3, 2014.

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Frequently asked questions

What are solar panels?

Solar panels, also known as photovoltaic (PV) panels, are devices that convert sunlight into electricity. They are typically made up of multiple solar cells that generate direct current (DC) electricity when exposed to sunlight.

How do solar panels work?

Solar panels work by harnessing the energy from sunlight. When sunlight hits the solar cells, the photons in the light excite the electrons in the cells, creating an electric current. This direct current is then converted into alternating current (AC) electricity using an inverter, which can be used to power household appliances and electronics.

What are the benefits of installing solar panels?

There are several benefits to installing solar panels in a home. Solar energy is renewable and sustainable, reducing reliance on fossil fuels. Solar panels can lower electricity bills by generating your own electricity, provide a backup power source during outages, and may qualify for government incentives or rebates. They also contribute to reducing carbon emissions and environmental impact.

Can solar panels generate enough electricity to power my entire home?

The amount of electricity solar panels can generate depends on various factors, including the size of the system, the location, and the amount of sunlight received. While it is possible for solar panels to generate enough electricity to power an entire home, it often depends on factors such as energy consumption, available roof space, and the size of the solar panel system installed.

How long do solar panels last?

Solar panels are designed to be durable and can last for several decades. Most manufacturers offer warranties ranging from 20 to 25 years, indicating the expected lifespan of the panels. With regular maintenance and proper care, solar panels can continue to generate electricity efficiently beyond their warranty period.

Are solar panels maintenance-free?

Solar panels generally require minimal maintenance. Regular cleaning to remove dust and debris, checking for any shading issues caused by nearby trees or structures, and ensuring the inverter is functioning properly are some of the typical maintenance tasks. It is also advisable to have the system inspected by a professional periodically.

Can solar panels work during cloudy or rainy days?

Solar panels can still generate electricity on cloudy or rainy days, although their efficiency may be reduced compared to sunny conditions. While direct sunlight is ideal, solar panels can still produce electricity from diffused sunlight. The overall energy production may vary depending on the weather conditions and the specific panel's technology.

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